An article from Do or Die Issue 6. In the paper edition, this article appears on page(s) 82-86.
IMAGE: Across the valley from the Battlestar proudly stood Zion Tree
This interview was gently extracted from a war torn activist three days after the eviction of the last tree at Flywood camp at Manchester Airport. There were still tunnel systems being occupied, and other tree houses have gone up since. This follows one persons experience of one of the most successfully defended tree houses. From the begging to the end of the Battle Star Galactica.
Good evening from Captain Battlestar, who is totally nameless and will put on a silly accent throughout this interview.
Could you give us the background to the campaign?
The second runway had been on the cards for 25 years. After the public enquiry finished in 94 EF! types joined up with activists from the Green Party & FoE forming the RunWay Coalition. We had meetings but it didn't start to escalate until '96.
In May '96 we all walked the route of the runway. 20 of us went up to where Flywood would be a year later, and took photos of what turned out to be my tree. We went down through the willows and everything was so wild we had to slash a path through the undergrowth and into the meadow. We just thought Wow, it was totally awesome. We realised the main way to get people involved was to get them to experience the place. More & more walks were done with more and more people.
One night in late '96 I got a phone call saying that the decision whether or not to build it would be announced the next day. We thought shit we haven't got anything ready, no tree houses rigged up. Their security were already patrolling the sites looking for protesters. So a couple of us decided to go for it. We tatted some tarps and some ply wood and joists and planned a night mission to move in. We had rekied the site in disguise as dog walkers with barber jackets and found the most strategic point. That then became Flywood. At 7pm on Saturday the advance party of 5 climbers ran across the road carrying polyprop and climbing gear and disappeared off into the woods. An hour later the tat van turned up and managed to crash through the gates, unload and get 30 people on site, all without being spotted. We managed to set up a ground camp with a tree house 70 foot up all between 7 p.m. to 7 am.
The next morning, sitting in the bow of my tree watching the birds play, I saw a police car pass without even noticing us. We had thought they were on the ball - so we took the camp the night before runway walk. At midday 100 people turned up. The first thing the police knew about our camp was on the 3 o'clock news. Lots turned up and the camp came together really fast after that.
The A30 camp was being evicted 2 days before we moved in so while they were going down we were going up. It was a really nice feeling. They could not stop us. A few weeks later the A30 refugees turned up on mass. It all came together so beautifully. Within a week we had another camp set up - Zion Tree a 100 year old beech. We got many locals from North West moving their, many of them giving up their jobs.
Could you paint a picture of what type of ecology and landscape is being destroyed?
Most of the site was in the beautiful Bolin Valley. The woodland was called Hux Bank Wood which stretched from Zion Tree to Fly Wood down to River Rats. The whole valley was a grade A site of biological importance, just one down from a S.S.S.I. There are hundreds and hundreds of mature trees. The river meandering through the valley is to be encased in a massive concrete tube and, along with the rest of the valley, buried under rubble from a Derbyshire quarry. The whole thing is 4 million cubic metres- as large as the cutting at Twyford. The runway is around 300 hundred metres wide. All the woodland in that valley is to be completely annihilated, it is the removal of an entire landscape.
How many people from the surrounding communities were actively involved?
Virtually everybody there was from the N.West, apart from the usual rent-a-mob, which was the beauty of it. We got a few from Wigan and surrounding towns. It's not so much that there were so many locals involved but that they were new to protesting. They were defending their own land.
There was an established campaign in Mobely next door, a little town that will be right at the end of the proposed runway. One vet said after the decision was made he would start knitting a balaclava. During the eviction they organised that every Saturday they'd hold a vigil by the main gates. On the Saturday that the Battlestar came down there were 400 of them. One of the women from Mobley came up in the first week saying she was just a housewife but what could she do. After telling her there was no such thing she was given a wish list which she took around the village. She collected tat every day in her vehicle and the villagers made up sealed eviction stashes with games and drinks and things. It was really amazing - they were thoroughly behind us.
We heard that 'defencing' often ended up quite full on?
The security started putting up fences between the camps with razor wire. You could lose your finger on it. We started resisting, they started arresting us. Soon the security started conniving with the police to help beat us so we pixied at night generally just snipping it and taking it back to camp for building material. Cliff Richard camp was mainly constructed out of the fence.
One night a large group went out to the fence and started to tear it down. Some people who were heading off down the valley looking for a lost child bumped into the police who were arriving to deal with the fence trashers. One copper got out of the car, pulled out his truncheon and just started attacking people, with no warning, laying into people with his baton; the result being broken knuckles from trying to block the blows, broken ribs, missing teeth, battered heads. The people acted in self defence. The police Land rover ended up getting some of its lights and windows smashed in. As a result the police withdrew, the security withdrew and the fences were left unguarded, 100 metres was removed that night, flattened and destroyed.
On another night police starting laying into people and arrests were made for 'violent disorder', 'riot' which carries a maximum sentence of 10 years, and 'using a dangerous dog as a weapon'. One person that was rescued from the police had broken ribs. He was jumped on by cops waving their batons on the way to hospital. Inside the hospital they surrounding him saying "do you want some", then they quick cuffed & dragged him off. Some are on remand now but as usual the police's statements are cocking up so they should be out soon.
Tell us about the tree house you lived in - BattleStar Galactica. What tactics did you use to actually keep your tree house pig-proof.
The logical process was: (A) get rid of the cherry picker. That was done with a system of tunnels strategically surrounding the trees making the ground unstable for heavy machinery on one side, and with a steep bank on the other side ,that was too high for the Cherry Pickers.(B) make it climber-proof - this was quite difficult, because the little bastards climb everywhere! However if you have a tree house wall which is six feet or more and the edge of it is covered in barbed wire, and grease, and razor fence, and there's someone there who's not going to let you over it, it is virtually impossible to climb round it. So that was the starting point: to make the scab-proof "battle" platform.
We lashed these big brackets onto the tree, built the frame, boarded it, and then we covered the top-side in razor fence, which meant that they couldn't chain-saw or saw through it. There was a coil of barbed wire on the underside of the platform, on the top, and right round the edge, so that you couldn't get hold of the thing. It was hideously difficult to get round it, even with no one on it, but of course with eight people running around on it, saying "No, you're not coming up", and being very strong and resisting them, basically they were stuffed. Then just to make it a little bit more fun, we decided to actually stop them being able to get up the trunk full-stop. So at a height of about twelve feet above the ground, we put coils of barbed wire, like you'd see on top of a prison. Then we thought, tree-surgeons with their spiky boots will just spike up it, but the only thing that can stop spikes is metal. So we got some corrugated sheet, and nailed that on the tree, then greased it just to make it even more unpleasant.
And then just to make it a little bit more unpleasant, I put another 10-15 feet of coiled barbed wire, this time vertically down the trunk, stapled on quite firmly, before I realised that I may have just put a set of hand-holds up the tree. So we stopped there and put another seven feet collar at the top, then greased that. The main thing with the collars is to make sure that they're really thoroughly nailed on - you need to put a helluva lot of nails in, which people do not like doing to trees, unfortunately. But we decided that we'd rather kill one tree and save a wood than not do it and just inevitably loose. A gas bottle was hung amongst the coils of barbed wire, untethered so it was just sat there- a deterrent.
I had a sun-lounger on the top, for sitting in the sun in and have breakfast on. And then came along two activists who pitched a ridge tent on top it. So there was a two man tent on top of a sun lounger on top of a razor wire covered tree house 65 foot up. This was ridiculous! That is when it became a proper shanty town.
How long were you up in the trees for?
Well I moved in and lived up there until I got taken out. The evictions started on the Tuesday and nine-days later they hit Flywood. Once we were under proper eviction it was three and a half days until me and #### were down.
Can you describe how the eviction started?
At 3.45am, an advance guard of Manchester cops bolt-cropper'd their way into Zion camp under the cover of aircraft noise - people heard them and went over to investigate. They were met by a large number of balaclved, riot-helmeted, baton- weilding men-in-black, who charged down a path after them. They beat the campaigners on the back of the head, and when they were either knocked to the ground or got on the ground, they sat on them and told them not to say a word. People up in Zion Tree couldn't see what was happening, but knew something was. They shouted "Are you alright?", and no one could reply coz they were gonna get their fucking heads kicked in.
Less than quarter of an hour later they hit Zion and Jimi Hendrix, which was where this journalist was - he was in a bender just before the main camp - they smacked him across the face and it split quite nastily - there was a lot of blood. It was a big mistake to start whacking HTV journalists across the face, because it just backs up the stories of violence against us.
Largely as a result they didn't go into any of the camps in quite the same full-on manner. The original raiders, about ten people, went in there absolutely psyched to attack people. If ten anti-roads activists went piling into somewhere wearing ballies, wielding sticks, they'd all be done for riot, getting eight years each. The whole thing is totally one-sided and ridiculous.
What was the media pen?
Well they fenced us off relatively early on. When they did the Zion, Jimmy and Garlic evictions, journalists were taken to a bit of field by the airport and from there you could see very little. They were deliberately being kept away from good shots. This was part of the whole strategy of the eviction, which was to control and limit the number of people that could see what was going on. It is ironic in a way coz in terms of the state it was one of the safest and most non-violent evictions to date. So, as other people could tell you from Newbury, you've got a private eviction here, and they could quite easily have trashed us.
On the whole, there was no violent resistance. We didn't need to, because the climbers moved so slowly. They weren't interested in rushing. It took nine days to get through four tree camps, none of which in their own right were particularly difficult. They just went really slowly, and generally pretty carefully. Which doesn't justify it at all, but it neutralises your anger.
When they came to the Battlestar they didn't even attempt to climb up into it, but one of the first things they did was to ring bark it. They took out a section of bark about three or four inches right round, this kills the tree. I think it was done as a bit of a sick joke, to wind us all up. They saw us as a challenge, and it did shake us up. We lost our cool. Basically it was "bollocks" to fluffy - you start sawing into our tree, we're gonna get a bit hardcore. In the end we all calmed down, but something that we'll all remember is the moment when the chain saw guy took a 24 inch chain saw to our tree and we didn't actually know what he's was going to do with it. Imagine he said, "You're not going to believe this!" and then started cutting into the tree, basically we thought that he was going to cut a wedge out of it. Or cut it in some seriously destabilising way to scare us off. If it had been a bluff it wouldn't have worked because we'd all have stayed up no matter what.
Beyond Battlestar there were the twigs, and the branches at the very top. One of our crew, who's a bit of a nutter came up with an idea. He tied a set of hang mans' nooses to the very top of the branches, you could just about get to them but it was pretty dangerous. People from below wouldn't be able to get to the nooses to cut them, and they wouldn't be able to get a harness on the person in the noose and in theory they wouldn't be able to pull you off because it would hang you. And it did work, as I found out! I did it. They did attempt to scare me, trying to get me to think they were gonna come and get me anyway. The boss climber, Richard Turner, reassured me that the branch the noose was tied to would snap like a carrot before it hung me. This wasn't very reassuring, coz if the branch snapped like a carrot I'd fall 50-60 feet to the ground and die. But in the end, either they decided to back down anyway, or they were bluffing- it was just too much for them. Most of the time I was in the noose and they were below me, I was in front of the Press Association and the BBC, saying, "Get the fucking camera to the other side of the bank, coz I'm about to die and I want it to be on telly!"
And how did they actually evict you in the end?
The Battlestar really worked- it delayed them and meant that they had to bring in a cherry picker rather than simply use climbers. They came up late on a Sunday after we'd been sitting down on the platform chilling out in the sun carving chess-pieces. I sussed what they were up to - that they were clearing trees to bring a cherry-picker in, and I saw that they were building a bridge. But I couldn't really believe they were going to come in that late on a Sunday. Then we saw a bulldozer and Chief Climber Richard Turner said, "You'd better pack your bags. Are you coming down?". It was late on a Sunday, all the Sheriffs men had gone. There was no press, no cameras, the police evidence gatherers had gone. There were nine of us up there. So everybody apart from about two or three of us went down to the battle platform and sat with all the tat and got ready to resist. A cherry picker delivered bailiffs to the platform but it still took the state the best part of an hour to dismantle the three platforms, and throw everything out, and thoroughly smash everything up. One person went down with them which left eight of us up a bare tree, with no platforms. I had a hammock and a rucksack, but no one else had their stuff with them. However we'd managed to salvage most of the bedding, biscuits, chocolate, alcohol and a spliff - all the essentials!
Then the climbers went home, and wished us an uncomfortable night, and ++++ absailed out of the tree and got arrested - she didn't want to stay. We had a bit of a meeting, and four of the remaining seven decided to try and build overnight an escape walkway system. It would have been quite amusing defending the tree for six days, causing them real grief, and then in the night just disappearing. They'd come back the next day to find an empty tree. I wasn't into it at all, I was going to stay until the end, because that's what I'd psyched myself up for over the last few months. But other people were really into the idea. So four tried, but unfortunately they believed a bailiff who promised them safe passage off the site. They came down and got nicked.
So they went, and that left three of us up there. At this stage in the eviction the climbers could have started using the battle platform as a staging point. So me and **** destroyed it. We slung a hammock up the top of a tree, put in loads of bedding and fell asleep. When the bailiffs came in the morning, they couldn't believe we were all cozy, with food and alcohol cradled in the branches. With the entire tree so difficult to climb they realised they'd have to go off and get a cherry-picker. Every morning we took down the hammock - we wanted to hold out for at least seven days. **** came down without resisting; **** took the remaining bedding and food across neighbouring walkways to a sycamore tree.
When the cherry-pickers came, I took my harness off and waved it at them from the branches. I had my rucksack full of food and my hammock and climbed to the very top branch. I just kept climbing. The bailiff was saying, "The tree's coming down today," and I kept saying, "No, the tree's not coming down today!". He was going psychotic. Fortunately the cherry-pickers couldn't reach me, and they knew they couldn't reason with me not wanting to risk the thirty-foot drop with a noose round my neck. They decided to back off.
After a while they brought in a bulldozer to raise the level of the ground around the tree, after four hours the cherry-picker was back. With the extra couple of feet, they could reach us. So after much deliberation, I shot across the walkway to the sycamore, where I hoped they couldn't reach me. But they could. I was totally fucked after all this. Traumatised. I don't think I could go through that again. My energy was completely sapped, and their was four in th cherrypicker basket so resistance was pretty mch futil. So I absailed it down.
Tell us about the Battlestar crew?
The original plan was to have about five people up there, but people kept coming up, wanting to join the Battlestar. So we built the sister-ship, the Pentagon, which was good coz it meant we had an extra tree defended, extra space and extra shit for the bailiffs to deal with. We had a really good crew: most of us knew each other, so we tended to get on pretty well. We had a similar approach in many ways, but diverse backgrounds. We had a teacher, some dole activists, some professional climbers, long-standing campaigners that had been to Newbury and so on. Most people, like me, hadn't been in a tree eviction before. Basically it was one big happy family, with no stereotyped roles, sexism or whatever. We all grouped together for comfort, and gave each other strength. We made most decisions as a group, and got people to decide for themselves what they wanted to do. Since our eviction we all gone separate ways. We had all our different campaigns, so some went off to Lyminge, others to Sherwood Forest and so on.
What message would you like to give to other campaigns?
Don't put a noose round your neck unless you're fucking insane! There's a lot to be said for thinking, planning - rather than just throwing yourself into the first idea that comes to your head, tactical thinking. Get to know the people and the area you're working with. Make sure your house is big, so you can have plenty of food and supplies. Before you even start thinking about building, look at the terrain, the landscape, at other trees. If you're the first there, it's worth spending a week looking into how to deal with different types of eviction. Like in a clump of trees, where you can defend each other. Battlestar was at the hub of a group of four trees. Each of those had a Battlestar- type platform. So you can have a network of trees, all interconnected. The stronger the community, the more difficult it becomes for them to get you.
Another important issue to deal with on campaigns is the macho, lairy, male, aggressive brew-crew culture. At first there was no problem. There were as many women as men, and Flywood was the vegan camp, with a pretty sorted community. But later on, the percentage of men got higher, and things got rather alpha-male.Sorted people started leaving, and less experienced people started taking over. In the end there were only three people left at Flywood ground camp, and it became really lairy, scaring away locals. This puts people off getting involved. It has to be nipped in the bud.
This was one person's story, but hundreds participated in the Manchester Airport evictions, up trees, down tunnels, and on the ground. More camps are being set up and as we go to print there is still someone in the tunnel system. You can be involved in the next stage of the camapign. This was just the beginning.
For further info contact:
Campaign Against Runway 2
6 Mount St
Tel: 0161 834 8221